John Lord Culpeper 1st Baron of Thoresway1

Male, #8477, (7 Aug 1599 - 11 Jul 1660)
Father*Thomas Culpeper of Wigsell (1561 - b 19 Sep 1613)
Mother*Anne Slaney (c 1575 - 20 Feb 1600/1)
Name-AltSpell This surname is sometimes spelled Culpepper. 
Note See the page for Thomas Lord Culpeper 2nd Baron of Thoresway for an article entitled "Four Lords, Not Enough Sons" which discusses the erroneous notion passed down to many modern-day Culpeppers that they are descended from Lord Culpeper of Virginia.2 
Name-AltSpell This surname is sometimes spelled Colepeper. 
Birth*7 Aug 1599 John was born at Wigsell, Salehurst, co. Sussex, England, on 7 Aug 1599. 
Baptism17 Aug 1600 He was baptized at Salehurst, co. Sussex, England, on 17 Aug 1600.  
Death of Mother20 Feb 1600/1 His mother Anne Slaney died on 20 Feb 1600/1.3 
Marriage*29 Oct 1628 He married Philippa Snelling at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, London, England, on 29 Oct 1628 at age 29. 
Birth of Son1629 His son Alexander Culpeper of Greenway Court was born in 1629.4 
Marriage*12 Jan 1631 He married Judith Culpeper on 12 Jan 1631 at age 31. 
Birth of Soncirca 1633 His son Thomas Culpeper was born circa 1633 at Hollingbourne, co. Kent, England
Death of Soncirca 24 Aug 1634 His son Thomas Culpeper died circa 24 Aug 1634 at Hollingbourne, co. Kent, England
Birth of Soncirca 1635 His son Thomas Lord Culpeper 2nd Baron of Thoresway was born circa 1635. 
Will14 Dec 1635 He is mentioned in the will of John Culpeper of Astwood in Feckenham, co. Worcs. on 14 Dec 1635.5 
Birth of Sonsay 1640 His son John Lord Culpeper 3rd Baron of Thoresway was born say 1640 at Hollingbourne, co. Kent, England
Birth of Soncirca 1642 His son Cheney Lord Culpeper 4th Baron of Thoresway was born circa 1642 at Hollingbourne, co. Kent, England
Will13 Jan 1644 He is mentioned in the will of Sir Alexander Culpeper of Greenway Court, Knight at Greenway Court, Hollingbourne, co. Kent, England, on 13 Jan 1644.6,7 
Will30 Jan 1644 He is mentioned in the will of Sir Alexander Culpeper of Greenway Court, Knight on 30 Jan 1644.8,9 
Death of Son2 Mar 1648/49 His son Alexander Culpeper of Greenway Court died on 2 Mar 1648/49 at London, England.4 
Birth of Son1652 His son Francis Culpeper was born in 1652 at Abroad
Will*3 Jul 1660 He made a will at co. Kent, England, on 3 Jul 1660.

John Lord Culpeper Baron of Thoresway. To be bur. in vault which Sir Thomas Culpeper (Sir Thomas Culpeper of Hollingbourne, the Elder, Knight) hath builded in Hollingbourne if convenient.
     Whereas His Majesty in answer to my petition Of 27 June last hath engaged his Royal word for payment of £2,000 out of his first receipts, for clearing of my paternal estate and towards paying portions to my younger children. And whereas there is due to me from Mr. William Longville & Mr. Robert Hales £1,500 which is secured to my brother Ralph Freke (Ralph Freke of Aldington in Thornham, co. Kent) for me by bond dat. 17 June 1660; and whereas there is due to me from Mr. Robert Peyton & Elizabeth Robinson widow £1,000
     To my daur. Elizabeth (Elizabeth Culpeper) in full of her portion £4,000 she to release her right in mtge made to her of manors of Morghue & Godden & of lands called Greenway Court, Kent, for payment of £1,300, & also her fourth part of manor of Kavenlite, co. Radnor, also her right in £300 debt due to her from Sir John Greenvill & such securities as sd. Sir J. Greenvill hath made to her or to Sir Edward Ford (Sir Edward Ford of Harting, co. Sussex) to her use, also her right to £750 which my exer or my brother Ralph Freke has already secured to her.
     To my daur Judith (Judith Culpeper) (besides the fourth part of manor of Kavenlite which I heretofore settled on her) £500 at her marriage with consent of my sister Lady Brooke (Elizabeth Culpeper), my brother Mr. William Cage (Sir William Cage of Bersted, Knight), & of my exer: also £1,500 out of His Majesty's debt.
     To my son John (John Lord Culpeper 3rd Baron of Thoresway) (besides his fourth part in sd. manor of Kavenlite & £50 annuity settled on him out of manor of Morghue & Greenway Court) £500, also £1,000 I enjoin him to make his brother Thomas (Thomas Lord Culpeper 2nd Baron of Thoresway) his exer in case he die under 21 or unmarried.
     To my son Cheney (Cheney Lord Culpeper 4th Baron of Thoresway) (beyond his quarter of manor of Kavenlite & of a £50 Annuity from manor of Morghue & Greenaway Court) £500 also £1,000 with same injunction as to his will.
     To my son Francis (Francis Culpeper) (beyond the £50 Annuity which I heretofore settled on him out of sd manor of Morghue & Greeneway Court) £1,000 at 21, also £1,000 more, out of King's Debt; but if he die under 21, exer discharged.
     To my daur Philipp (Philippa Culpeper (The Younger Sister)) in full lieu of her portion £500 also £500, both at her marriage, my exer to educate her until 18: also to her £1,000 out of King's debt.
     To my servant John Rowe for care of me in my sickness £120
     To Sir Edward Ford in whose house I now lie, for his trouble £200
     To the servants of his house £20.
     Rest of all debts owing to me, one particularly of £750 which Sir Thomas Culpeper owes me on mtge of parsonage of Hollingbourne to my Brother Ralph Freke in trust for me, also sums which I left at several times in hands of Mrs. Elizabeth Bridgman at Amsterdam, as appears by her letter of 10 June; & all other goods, to my exer towards disburthening & repurchasing of my estate sold during the late troubles by the then pretended authority at any time since 1643.
     I beg His Majesty towards redeeming of my distressed family & estate from ruin. His Majesty will take order with his Court of Exchequer that the whole debt of £12,000 may be punctually paid to my exer.
     My eldest son & heir Thomas C. to be exer.
     Witns. J. Hamilton (James Hamilton Groom of the Chamber to Charles II), Edmund Gibbon, Alexander Culpeper (Alexander Culpeper of Greenway Court), John Hatton, Nicholas Myram, Richard Halfhedd.
Codicil. All my real estate to my eldest son Thomas C. in fee; & whereas I am seised of divers maners & lands in co. Kent which may be Gavelkind, I leave all these to my sd. eldest son Thomas C. in fee. Witns. Tho. Pordage, A. Culpeper, Jo. Collyns, J. Reves.
Prob. per juramenturn Domini Thomae Culpeper filii... et exoris.10 
Death*11 Jul 1660 He died at co. Kent, England, on 11 Jul 1660 at age 60.10 
Probate*3 Aug 1660 Probate action was taken on John's estate on 3 Aug 1660 at co. Kent, England.10 
Biography John Culpeper (also spelled Colepeper and Culpepper; died 11 Jun 1660), was an English statesman and an influential counselor of Charles I during the Civil War and of Charles II in exile.
Elected member for Kent in the Long Parliament, he took the popular side, supporting the Earl of Strafford's attainder and receiving an appointment to the Parliamentary committee of defense in 1641. He separated, however, from the popular party on the church question, opposing the proposals to abolish episcopacy and for religious union with the Scots. In 1642 he joined the King's supporters, taking office as chancellor of the exchequer, but he disapproved of Charles's attempted arrest of five members of the Commons. In the Oxford Parliament he advised concessions to secure peace. He received a peerage in 1644.
Culpeper was sent with Edward Hyde (afterward earl of Clarendon) in charge of the Prince of Wales, after Charles's final defeat in 1645, to the Scilly Isles and thence to France (1646). In 1648 he accompanied the Prince on his unsuccessful naval expedition and returned with him to The Hague. After Charles I's execution he pressed upon Charles II the acceptance of the Scots' proposals. The treaty between Oliver Cromwell and Cardinal Mazarin in 1654 compelled Culpeper to leave France for Flanders. At the Restoration he returned to England but lived only a few weeks.11 
Biography* Sir John Culpeper, first baron Culpeper of Thoresway, (and the First Lord Culpeper) was baptised in Salehurst, August 7, 1600, as 'Johanes Colepeper, filius Mri Thomae, armigeri'; was named by his maternal grandmother, Dame Margaret Slaney in her will (1612) as 'my godson John C. another of the sons of my dau. Anne C.,' as well as in her codicil (May, 1618) in the language already quoted; and, in the inq. p.m. of Slaney C. (May, 1619) appears as 'John C. his only brother and heir, and heir of the body of said Thomas by Anne his wife; and is at taking of this inq. under :21, viz: 18 years, 9 months and 9 days and no more.'

He matriculated at Oxford from Hart Hall, April 26, 1616, as 'of Sussex, aged 15' (Foster) and was admitted to the Middle Temple, February 6, 1617/8, as 'Mr. John C., second son of Thomas C. of Wigsell, Sussex, deceased (Hopwood, ii, 625). Having become, by the death of his elder brother in December, 1618, 'primi sternmatis Wigsellensis' (as he later described himself on the MI. of his first wife), he was knighted by James I at Theobald's, January 14, 1621/2 (Nichols, iii, 751).

Clarendon testifies that he 'never cultivated the muses.' If he ever had any intention of pursuing a career at the bar in the tradition of his uncle, John of Feckenham, he abandoned it when he became 'of Wigsell.' Being just of age as he was knighted, and having no home ties, he forthwith prepared to spend 'some years of his youth in foreign parts and especially in armies, ' and to that end liquidated his property.

He had inherited his father's share in the Virginia Company and had already taken a part in the politics of that society (in April, 1623, he allied himself with the Warwick faction, Brown, Genesis, 982), when at the court held May 7, 1623, 'Mr. Deputy propounded the passing of One Share from Sir John Culpeper to Mr. ffreake of the Middle Temple, gentleman' (Records of the London Company, L. C. ed., p. 412). In the same year, 1623 (Close Roll, 21 Jac. I, pt. 26) he sold Wigsell to Sir Thomas C. to be vested in his eldest son, Cheney. It would thus seem that Sir John must have left England in the autumn of 1623; for there is no further record of his until October, 1628, when he. contracted his first marriage. It was accordingly after five years of soldiering in the wake of Gustavus Adolphus that, as Clarendon says, 'in very good season and after a small waste of his fortune' lie returned to England, 'retired from that course of life and married and 'betook himself to a country life.' He now established himself in Hollingbourne (he describes himself 'of Hollingbourne' in his mar. lic., 1631, and is so described again in the Commonwealth act of 1650, and, under the influence of Sir Thomas, commenced politician. To quote Clarendon again, his school was county affairs, 'the business of the country and the concernments of it, in which he was very well versed: and being a man of sharpness of parts and volubility of language he was frequently made choice of to appear at the Council board in those matters which related to the country, in the managing whereof his abilities were well taken notice of.' The result was that he was returned (Official Returns of M. Ps. 1878) to the Short Parliament (1640) as burgess for Rye (Cinq Port). In the Long Parliament he was Knight of the shire for Kent and made his celebrated speech against monopolies (Rushworth, iv, 133).

The remainder of his career is part of the history of England. His fundamental conservatism soon drew him into opposition to the crescent 'reforming party.' In the small company of Falkland and Hyde he stood at last by the bishops and against the Grand Remonstrance; with the result that all three were invited by Charles I to join the government. On January 2, 1642, Culpeper was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, which office he exchanged the following year for that of Master of the Rolls. Notwithstanding these dignities, 'as his courage was always unquestionable,' when war came he did service also in the field: at Edgehill (Keinton) he charged with Rupert's cavalry, acquitting 'himself like a brave man-at-arms,' and at Newbury again 'enobled his Gowne with Martiall Achievements.' For the example of these acts, as well as his service in the Council Chamber, the King raised him to the peerage in 1644; but in so doing 'did much dissatisfy both the court and the army.' Clarendon's own comment (Rebellion, v, 4) is that 'though he did imprudently in desiring it, did deserve it.' In 1645 he became, with Hyde, a member of the Council set up in the west of England for the Prince of Wales; and eventually escorted his young master from Cornwall to Scilly. Thence Culpeper left to join the Queen mother in Paris: and so began his long wanderjahr on the continent.

During the exile, the future fortunes of Culpeper's family were shaped by two lawyer-drawn papers. On September 18, 1649, he and his cousin-german Thomas Culpeper (son of John of Feckenham) were included in the patent which created the proprietary of the Northern Neck of Virginia; and in 1651 the Commonwealth by act of Parliament (Acts, 1651, c., 10) declared forfeited and ordered sold all the manors and estates of 'Sir John Culpeper, late of Hollingbourne in the County of Kent, Knight:' a description which was intended for an insult by disregarding the warborn peerage.

Culpeper survived to take part, at the age of sixty, in Charles II's entry into London. After that dramatic 'ride in triumph through Persepolis' he was destined for a large part in the restoration government (see Ranke's comment on him) ; actually he assumed his function as Master of the Rolls (swearing in, in that capacity, his old colleague Hyde as Lord Chancellor), and for some weeks sat regularly at the Council board. But in June of the restoration year he fell ill, while he 'lay' at Hartinge, co. Sussex, in the house of his friend, Sir Edward Ford, whose daughter his dead son Alexander, had married. Weary after more than ten years of exile, he planned here a settlement of his disordered estate. His English property had been sequestered and sold and he was deeply in debt. 'He used to say,' his son reported later (Gent. Mag., lxvii (1797) p. 477) 'that the usurer and he were not yet even; for he had only scratched the usurer, the usurer had stabbed him.' He was, however, comforted by a promise from the King of a grant sufficient to put his house in order; and, quite unconscious of the part that promise was to play in the history of Virginia, died on July 11, 1660 [the date is on his MI.], having made the following will (See Culpepper Connections Archives)

It does not appear from the Hollingbourne register that he was buried there, but in 1695 two of his children then surviving erected in Hollingbourne church a monument with the following MI.:

'To the lasting memory of John, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thoresway, Master of the Rolles and Privy Counsellor to two Kings, Charles the First and Charles the Second. For equal fidelity to the King and Kingdome he was most exemplary. And in an exile of above ten years was a constant attendant and upright Minister to the Prince last mentioned. With him he returned tryumphant into England on the 29th of May 1660; but died the 11th of July next following in the 61st year of his age to the irreparable loss of his family. He commended his soul to God his faithful Creator, and ordered his body here to expect a blessed Resurrection. His Patent of Honour from King Charles the First dated the 21st of October 1644 may serve for his immortal Epitaph. Part whereof is here below faithfully copyed from the Latine original & translated into English: [the latin text, which follows, is here omitted]

'Whereas our well beloved and most faithful Counsellor John Culpeper Kt. Mr. of the Rolles of our Chancery, of the Antient and Noble family of the Culpepers in our Counties of Kent and Sussex many ages past renowned for persons of eminent ability both in War and Peace, hath given us signall testimonies of his approved Loyalty, singular Manhood, and profound judgment; who, in that never to be forgotten Battell of Keinton, where both our own and the publick safety were manifestly at stake, being then chancellor of our Exchequer, acquitted himselfe like a brave man-at-arms; who, at Newberry, and on other occasions always enobled his Gowne with Martiall Achievements; and lastly, who, in our most perilous junctures by his seasonable and solid Counsells hath been a principal support of our Crowne and Dignity, &c.'

'By his wife Judith, daughter of Sir John (sic) Culpeper of Hollingbourne Kt. he had 7 children that survived him, Thomas, later Lord Culpeper, John now Lord Culpeper, Cheney, Frances, Elizabeth, widow of James Hamilton Esq. late Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles the Second, Judith, and Philippa. Of these John Lord Culpeper and Elizabeth Hamilton, equally zealous of expressing their Duty, have on the 10th day of June in the year 1695 erected this Monument.5
Biography John Culpeper, first Lord Culpeper (d. 1660), was the only son of Sir John Culpeper of Wigsell, Sussex, and Elizabeth Sedley. (Hasted, History of Kent, ii. 476)

According to Clarendon he spent 'some years of his youth in foreign parts, and especially in armies, where he had seen good service and very well observed it, and might have made a very good officer.' (Clarendon, Life, ii. 10)

Returning to England he married Philippa, daughter of Sir John Snelling, and after his marriage, ‘betook himself to a country life, and studied the business of the country and the concernments of it, in which he was very well versed; and being a man of sharpness of parts and volubility of language, he was frequently made choice of to appear at the council board in those matters which related to the country, in the managing whereof his abilities were well taken notice of’.

Having thus become popular, he was in 1640 elected to the Long parliament as second of the two members for Kent. In the Long parliament on 9 Nov 1640, he distinguished himself by a great speech against monopolies; was ordered on 12 Feb 1641 to impeach Judge Berkeley on behalf of the commons; took part in the proceedings against Stafford, and spoke on behalf of the bill of attainder. He was also a member of the committee of defense appointed by the commons on 14 Aug 1641. (Gardiner, History of England, x. 2)

Nevertheless, even during the first session, his divergence from the leaders of the popular party was considerable. He opposed the acceptance of the London petition against episcopacy (8 Feb) and the demands of the Scots for religious union. When the House of Commons went into committee to discuss the latter subject, Culpeper was placed in the chair in order to silence him in the debate (17 May). On 11 Jun he moved an important amendment to the Root and Branch Bill, and on 1 Sept. brought forward a resolution in defense of the prayer-book (ib. ix. 281, 377, x. 14). Thus it was specially on religious questions that Culpeper separated himself from the popular party. Clarendon thus explains his attitude: "In matters of religion he was in his judgment very indifferent, but more inclined to what was established, to avoid the accidents which commonly attend a change, without any motives from his conscience, which yet he kept to himself, and was well content to have it believed that the activity proceeded from thence." (Life, ii. 12).

In the second session he opposed the Grand Remonstrance, and attempted to enter his protest against its being printed. He also spoke against the Militia Bill and against the declaration proposed by Pym to refuse toleration to the Irish Catholics (Gardiner, x. 76, 96). So soon, therefore, as the king decided to confer office on the leaders of his party in the commons, Culpeper became a member of the privy council and chancellor of the exchequer (2 Jan 1642, ib. x. 127). The king's attempt to seize the five members was made without his privity, and, like Hyde and Falkland, he was 'much displeased and dejected' thereby (Clarendon, Rebellion, iv.158).

But it was in accordance with Culpeper's advice, although mainly owing to the influence of the queen, that the king gave his assent to the bill for the exclusion of the bishops from the House of, Lords (13 Feb 1642, Clarendon, Life, ii. 18). It was also by Culpeper's sole advice, given without the knowledge of Falkland or Hyde, that Charles formed the design of removing to the north of England with the object of obtaining possession of Hull (ib. ii. 17). After the king left London, Culpeper continued to meet Hyde and Falkland at Hyde's lodgings to prepare the king's answers to the messages of the parliament and concert plans for his service, in spite of the warning that the parliamentary leaders intended to send all three to the Tower (ib. ii. 38-9).

Escaping this fate by his precautions, he remained in London till about the end of May, and then joined the king at York. He was one of the councillors who signed their names to the declaration professing their belief that the king had no intention of making war on the parliament (15 June), and to the promise not to obey any order not warranted by the known laws of the land, or any ordinance concerning the militia not assented to by the king (13 June, Husbands, Exact Collection, 1643, 350, 367).

In company with the Earl of Southampton and two others, Culpeper was dispatched from Nottingham on 26 Aug 1642 to hear the king's last offer to negotiate before the war began. He was refused permission to address the house from his seat, and obliged to deliver his message from the bar. ' There standing bareheaded,' says D'Ewes, ‘he looked so dejectedly as if he had been a delinquent rather than a member of the house, or privy counselor, or a messenger from his majesty (Sanford, Studies and Illustrations, 529).

Culpeper was present at Edgehill, where he charged with Prince Rupert, and vehemently opposed those who urged the king to retreat under cover of the darkness instead of holding his ground (Clarendon, Rebellion, Appendix 2Y). In December following the post of master of the rolls be came vacant, and the king appointed Culpeper to fill it, intending Hyde to fill his place as chancellor of the exchequer. But Culpeper, though he professed much friendship, had no mind he should be upon the same level with him, and believed he would have too much credit in the council.'

Accordingly, although installed as master of the rolls on 28 Jan 1643 (Black Docquets of Letters Patent signed by Charles I at Oxford, 2), he delayed the surrender of the chancellorship of the exchequer as long as possible (22 Feb 1643), and even after it persuaded the king to infringe the prerogatives of that office by a grant to Mr. Ashburnham. Nevertheless, though this caused considerable cool ness between Hyde and Culpeper, ‘it never brake out or appeared to the disturbance or prejudice of the king's service’ (Clarendon, Life, ii. 77, iii. 31).

In the Oxford parliament Culpeper played a considerable part, being one of the two privy councillors who were included in it (Clarendon, Rebellion, Appendix 3Y). It was believed in London that he took up an attitude of opposition, moved that peace propositions should be sent to Westminster, and urged the sacrifice of Digby and other obnoxious councillors (Gardiner, History of the Great Civil War, i. 351). His influence with the king in military affairs roused the hostility of the generals (Clarendon, Rebellion, viii. 28-93).

He was particularly charged with advising the siege of Gloucester; ‘all conspired to lay the whole reproach upon the master of the rolls, who spake most in those debates, and was not at all gracious to the soldiers’ (ib. vii. 239). Rupert in consequence ‘crossed all he proposed,’ and Wilmot plotted a petition of officers that he might be excluded from all councils of war (ib. viii. 96, 168). Hence, when the king created the master of the rolls Lord Culpeper of Thoresway in Lincolnshire (21 Oct 1644, Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 472), ‘it did much dissatisfy both the court and army’ (Clarendon, Rebellion, viii. 170).

The parliament also, when Culpeper was appointed one of the commissioners for the Uxbridge treaty, refused to recognize his new dignity (Whitelocke, ff. 125-6).

In March 1645, Charles appointed Culpeper one of the council of the Prince of Wales, effected a reconciliation between him and Hyde, and dispatched both with the prince to the west of England. A large amount of his correspondence with Goring and other royalist commanders during the disastrous campaign of 1645 is preserved in the Clarendon Papers and the Tanner MSS.

In August the king sent for Culpeper to Brecon, and there commissioned him in case of danger to convey the prince to France, a destination which later letters altered to Denmark. The council, including Culpeper, remonstrated and urged the king to select Scilly or Jersey as a refuge for the prince when all hope of holding out in Cornwall was lost (Clarendon, Rebellion, 74,112, 116).

Culpeper himself hoped still to get aid from Scotland, and with that object procured the liberation of the Duke of Hamilton from his imprisonment (ib. Appendix 4 0).

He urged Ashburnham to ‘bend all his wits to advance the treaty with the Scots. It is the only way to save the crown and the three kingdoms; all other tricks will deceive you. All they can ask, or the king part with, is a trifle in respect of the price of a crown’ (Clarendon State Papers, n. 188).

A few days later (2 Mar 1646) he was forced to embark with the prince for Scilly, whence he was sent to France to inform the queen of her son's position and needs. The queen won over Culpeper to the view that the prince's removal to France was absolutely necessary and when the rest of the prince's council determined to remain in Jersey, he alone decided to accompany Prince Charles to France. Apart from distrust of France, the chief reason was that the policy of making religious concessions to gain the Scots, which was advocated by the queen and by Mazarin, commended itself to Culpeper while it was disapproved by Hyde and the others (Clarendon, Rebellion).

From St. Germain Culpeper, in joint letters with Jermyn and Ashburnham, continued to press this policy on the king (Clarendon State Papers, ii. 271).

"As for your advice," replied the king to one of these letters, "you speak my soul in everything but one; that is, the church" (ib. ii. 243).

And in an earlier letter to the queen, Charles wrote: "As for Culpeper, I confess never much to have esteemed him in religion, though in other things I reverenced his judgment" (Bruce, Letters of Charles I in 1646, 30).

They also urged the king to retain at all costs his right to the militia, and neither to suffer himself to be handed over to the parliament without security for his safety, nor to leave his own dominions (Clarendon State Papers, ii. 301). Sir John Berkeley's mission to England in the following year to promote an agreement between the king and the army was largely the work of Culpeper (Berkeley, Memoirs; Masères Tracts, 356).

On the revolt of a portion of the fleet in the summer of 1648, Culpeper accompanied the prince to sea, and was his principal adviser. The failure of this expedition to achieve anything was generally attributed to him, and some accused him of corruption.

Clarendon repels this charge: "He was not indeed to be wrought upon that way, but having some infirmities and a multitude of enemies, he was never absolved from anything of which any man accused him." (Rebellion, xi. 82).

Lord Hatton, however, writing to Nicholas, goes so far as to say: "I am sure I saw him plot and design against the relieving Pembroke and Colchester, and endeavor what in him lay to hinder any commission to the Duke of Buckingham unless he would be solely under the Earl of Holland and declare for the covenant and such popular ways" (Nicholas Papers, 96).

On the return of the prince to the Hague the old quarrel between Culpeper and Prince Rupert broke out again, and was industriously inflamed by Herbert, the attorney-general. On one occasion, when Rupert in the council nominated a certain Sir Robert Walsh as agent for the sale of prize goods, Culpeper, who opposed the appointment, concluded by offering to fight Rupert, but the intervention of Hyde and Cottington induced him to apologize a few days later (Clarendon, Rebellion, xi. 128).

Walsh, however, instigated by Herbert, violently assaulted Culpeper in the streets on 23 Oct 1648, and was for that offence forbidden to appear at court and banished from the Hague (Carte, Ormonde, vi. 592; Clarendon, xi. 130).

After the execution of the king, Culpeper was one of the chief supporters of the Scotch proposals to Charles II (June 1649; Nicholas Papers, 135).

When Charles II decided to go to Ireland instead of Scotland, Culpeper was sent to Russia to borrow money from the czar, and succeeded in obtaining a loan of twenty thousand rubles in corn and furs. An account of his reception at Moscow (May 1650) is printed in the Nicholas Papers (182-5).

Shortly after his return he was, by the influence of Lord Jermyn and the queen, to whose party he still belonged, sent to Holland as agent for Charles II, to the hope of obtaining armed support from the United Provinces, then (June 1650) at war with England (Clarendon State Papers, iii. 106).

It was also intended to despatch him to Scotland in 1654, but this mission came to nothing (ib. iii. 225).

By the treaty of August 1654 between Cromwell and Mazarin (Guizot, Cromwell, ii. 468) it was stipulated that Culpeper should be expelled from French territory, and he seems to have spent the rest of his exile in Flanders. From occasional notices in Clarendon's correspondence he appears to have been in more prosperous circumstances than most of the royalists.

On the death of Cromwell, Culpeper wrote a remarkable letter to Hyde (20 Sept. 1658) on the policy to be adopted by the royalist party (Clarendon State Papers, iii. 412).

He urged that the English royalists should be kept quiet until the divisions of the republicans brought the true season for activity; meanwhile he advised him to apply secretly to the discontented officers and statesmen, but especially to Monck.

"The person that my eye is chiefly on, as alone able to restore the king and not absolutely averse to it neither in his principles nor affections, is Monk;" and he went on to point out the way to deal with him, and to predict with astonishing foresight the probable course of events.

In September 1659, Culpeper followed the king to the south of France during the unsuccessful attempt of Charles to obtain some advantage from the treaty of the Pyrenees. Several letters written by Culpeper during this journey are among the Egerton MSS. (Eg. 2536). At the Restoration he returned to England, but died in the same summer (11 June 1660; Kennet, Register).

Culpeper’s character is described at length by Clarendon (I, ii. 10; Rebellion, iv. 122) and Sir Philip Warwick (Memoirs, 196). Both agree in praising his ability in debate and his fertility in counsel, and complain of a certain irresolution and changeableness which prevented him adhering to his first conclusions.

Both agree also in the statement that the uncertainty of his temper greatly diminished his usefulness. Clarendon in his correspondence frequently speaks of the difficulty of doing business with him. Nicholas echoes the same charge (Nicholas Papers, 315), and Warwick talks of his ‘eagerness and ferocity.’ This was largely the result of his education. When he came to court, says Clarendon, ‘he might very well be thought a man of no good breeding, having never sacrificed to the Muses or conversed to any polite company."

Culpeper's estates were restored by a private act passed after his death (Kennet, Register, 255). By his first wife he had one son, who died young, and a daughter, Pliilippa, who married Sir Thomas Herlackenden. By his second wife, Judith, daughter of Sir T. Culpeper of Hollingbourne, Kent, he had seven children, of whom Thomas, the eldest, became his successor in the title, which passed to his two younger brothers John and Cheney, and became extinct on the death of the last in 1725 (Hasted, Kent; Collins, Peerage, ix. 422).12 
Biography He is referenced in a biographical note for Alexander Culpeper Surveyor General of VA.13 
Will12 Aug 1710 He is mentioned in the will of John Lord Culpeper 3rd Baron of Thoresway on 12 Aug 1710.14,15 
Biography He is referenced in a biographical note for Thomas Culpeper of the Middle Temple.16 

Family 1

Philippa Snelling (1610 - before 16 Sep 1630)
Marriage*29 Oct 1628 He married Philippa Snelling at St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, London, England, on 29 Oct 1628 at age 29. 
Children

Family 2

Judith Culpeper (circa 1606 - Nov 1691)
Marriage*12 Jan 1631 He married Judith Culpeper on 12 Jan 1631 at age 31. 
Children
ChartsDiana, Princess of Wales: Culpeper Ancestral Chart
The 12th century Culpepers of England: Descendant Chart (16 generations, Males only)
Last Edited1 Jan 2012

Citations

  1. Col. F.W.T. Attree R.E./F.S.A. & Rev. J.H.L. Booker M.A., "The Sussex Colepepers, Part I", Sussex Archaeological Collections, XLVII,47-81, (1904)http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/sussex/default.htm.
  2. Warren L. Culpepper (#1942), Publisher of Culpepper Connections, See link below for e-mail address.
  3. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    P.C.C. 79 Capell Chancery Inq. P.M. 1614 No. 53.
  4. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    Chapter 3b.
  5. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm.
  6. E-mail written 2007 to Warren Culpepper from Charles Andrew Grigsby, England, e-mail address.
    Transcription of Will of Sir Alexander Culpeper of Greenway Court Hollingbourne Kent 1649
    Ref: 422.
  7. Public Records Office, National Archives, London.
    Image of will at: /archives/uk/wills/images/Alexander_of_Greenway_Court_1649.pdf .
  8. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    P. C. C. Rivers, 157.
    Image:http://gen.culpepper.com/archives/uk/wills/images/Alexander_of_Greenway_Court_1645-1.pdf.
  9. Public Records Office, National Archives, London.
    Image of will at: /archives/uk/wills/images/Alexander_of_Greenway_Court_1645-1.pdf.
  10. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    P. C. C. Nabbs, 235.
    Will dated July 3, 1660.
    Codicil dated July 9, 1660.
    Proved August 6, 1660.
  11. Britannica Online.
  12. The Dictionary of National Biography. The Concise Dictionary. Part 1, From the beginnings to 1900. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.
  13. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    Chapter 4b.
  14. Public Records Office, National Archives, London.
    Will of John 3rd Lord Culpeper, dated 12 Aug 1710, transcribed by Charles Andrew Grigsby. Image at: http://gen.culpepper.com/archives/uk/wills/images/John_Baron_of_Thoresway_1719-1.pdf and
    http://gen.culpepper.com/archives/uk/wills/images/John_Baron_of_Thoresway_1719-2.pdf.
  15. E-mail written 2007 to Warren Culpepper from Charles Andrew Grigsby, England, e-mail address.
  16. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    Chapter 4: XIII Thomas Culpepper.
  17. Fairfax Harrison, The Proprietors of the Northern Neck - Chapters of Culpepper Genealogy, Richmond, VA: The Old Dominion Press (Privately printed), 1926, Repository: LDS Family History Library - Salt Lake City, Call No. US/CAN Film #929429. Transcription available online at: http://gen.culpepper.com/historical/nneck/default.htm
    Chapter 3c.